For Successful Education [In Bulgarian]
Education: Theory & Practice
Higher Education Perspectives for an Exciting Educational Experience – Part VII: An Indian Context
Abstract. Perspective analysis with a broad development vision leads to realizing the pressing problems, education development gaps, recent trends, ground realities and prospects for the betterment of the Indian higher education scenario. Technological advancement, economic growth, innovative education, domain knowledge, change in lifestyle choices, responsible approaches towards development, reduced consumption of energy and resources, specialized research activities, education policy formulations, social reform efforts, and maintaining our identity help us to contribute to the wider task of nation-building through sustainable all-round development and innovative development solutions. Participatory planning for education development, robust reform enforcement mechanism, establishing effective educational institutions and identification of educational hubs have direct implications to bring about a remarkable positive change. Various higher education reform initiatives are required to develop many short and long-term sustainable solutions in the entire range of essential aspects of education.
Keywords: education research, eco-awareness, educational goals, interactive activities, context-based learning, research network
B. H. S. Thimmappa
Use of Electronic Tests in Teaching Geography in the South-West University in Blagoevgrad [In Bulgarian]
Abstract. Electronic tests are an important element in the structure of e-learning content of some university courses in geography at South-West University in Blagoevgrad. They are running – after every term – at the end of the semester, and depending on the kind involved with different relative weight in shaping the ongoing assessment of students. In the paper are analyzed the results obtained from the electronic tests on the same subject in different courses students within two academic years. On this basis conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of electronic tests as part of the teaching process.
Keywords: e-learning, formative tests, summative test
Science Can Be Fun – Murphy’s Law and Humour in Natural Science
Abstract. This article considers the possibility of implementing Murphyâ€™s law and humour in teaching natural sciences. First, it describes the origin and development of Murphyâ€™s Law, and considers the origin and defining of postulates arising from the research, scientific work and teaching practice. The central part of the paper deals with the use of humour in teaching mathematics and science, resulting from teaching practice. In addition, it presents the comic elements from films, TV series, cartoons, and school television programs, books for children and youth, and scientific popular literature. It considers the choice of the use of these media and their adaption to the needs of teaching natural sciences.
Keywords: natural science, humour, Murphyâ€™s law, Murphy in science
M. D. Stojkovic
Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling and Biological Studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes of Azodye Ligand Derived from 4-Aminoantipyrine and 5-Bromocolisylaldehyde
Abstract. A new azo dye ligand from 4-aminoantipyrine and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde that is 4-(2â€™-hydroxy-3â€™-formyl-5â€™-bromophenylazo)antipyrine and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized. The ligand and its metal complexes have been characterized by various techniques like analytical, IR, NMR, electronic, magnetic susceptibility, thermal, XRD and molecular modeling study. The spectral and analytical study predicts tridentate nature of the ligand, distorted octahedral geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and distorted tetrahedral geometry for Zn(II) complex. The Computational study of the ligand and its metal complexes predicts global reactive descriptors and geometrical parameters. The thermal study of the Ni(II) complex reveals its thermal stability and fluorescence study of the ligand and its Zn(II) complex indicates their photo conducting properties. The XRD study of the Cu(II) complex reveals tetragonal crystal system for the complex. The investing compounds are potential bactericides as indicated from their antibacterial study and DNA binding study of the compounds indicates their DNA binding ability.
Keywords: azo dye, complex compounds, Gaussian 03 software, XRD study, SEM image
S. N. Chaulia
Assessing Levels of CO2, CO, NOx and SO2 in Indoor Using Draeger Sensors: A Case Study of Prishtina, Kosovo
Abstract. Studies in large cities revealed that indoor air pollution concentrations are at such levels where it can cause serious health impacts. The main source of the release of substances in the environment is the emission of gases (produced during the combustion process) such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and others. In this study the assessment of indoor air quality in 26 places in Prishtina city were investigated and the main objective of this study was monitoring of the air quality through the determination of gases concentration of C02, C0, N0x and S02. Also the ratio of CO2/CO2+CO was calculated. Concentrations of CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx were determined using â€œDrÃ¤gerâ€ instrument, model â€œX-am 7000 digital gas monitorâ€. Environmental risk assessment of air quality was done by comparing the obtained results with air WHO standards. During that period were found a permanent presence of some toxic gases in high concentrations in indoor areas. Results show that CO2 levels were ranged 300-4000 ppmv. The concentration of CO was ranged 0.6-17 ppmv and was reported to be under limits value in all locations. Also concentrations of SO2 and NOx (except air sample S6) were reported to be under WHO air limits value. According to gases concentration, many locations show values characteristic for highly and extremely contaminated indoor places.
Keywords: indoor air pollution, assessment, combustion process, sensors, biomass fuel
S. Dumani, F. Gashi, N. Troni
From the Research Laboratories
Synthesis and Characterization of Compound PMPA Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Optimized Molecular Structures Calculated Using the DFT/B3LYP Method with the 3-21G** Basis Set Combin
Abstract. In this study, the Schiff base complex of CoII derived from reaction between Benzene-1,2-diamine, Acetophenone, and 1H-Pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde have been synthesized. All the complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral studies. All the complexes are light in color and stable to atmosphere. Elemental analysis shows ML2 stoichiometry for the complex. IR spectral data indicates coordination through NH pyrrole and azomethine nitrogen groups. Electronic spectral data suggests a polymeric octahedral structure for the CoII complex. The structural characterization of Schiff base and cobalt complexes were carried out on the basis of their melting point, solubility, elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT 90, and HETCOR spectroscopy studies. Molecular geometries, vibrational frequencies, and NMR frequencies of the title compounds in the ground state are calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theories (DFT/B3LYP), and GIAO methods with the 3-21G** basis set and compared with the experimental data. The calculated results show that the optimized geometries can reproduce the crystal structural parameters, and the theoretical vibrational frequencies show good agreement with the experimental values. The calculated Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The geometries and normal modes of vibrations obtained from DFT/3-21G** calculations are in good agreement with the experimentally observed data.
Keywords: 1H-Pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde, HETCOR, DEPT 90, DFT/B3LYP, 13C-13C COSY
M. M. Akbarzadeh, K. Mehrani, S. Ghammamy, V. H. Rezyan
History and Philosophy of Science
Carl Friedrich Rammelsberg and the Early Diffusion of the Periodic Table of Dmitri Mendeleev
Abstract. When Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) proposed his periodic law in 1869 on a pedagogical purpose, few teachers were enthusiastic. However, as early as 1873, a manual of chemistry already reproduced his periodic table. A renowned German chemist wrote it: Carl Friedrich Rammelsberg (1813-1899). With the exception of the chemists involved in the classification of the elements, he was, as far as we know, the first to present the periodic table of Mendeleev in a textbook.
Keywords: Mendeleev, Rammelsberg, textbook, periodic table
Science and Society
Students’ Attitudes Related to Science and Scientists: Stereotypes, Peculiarities, Implications [In Bulgarian]
Abstract. In recent decades studentâ€™s science – related attitudes have been investigated by a multitude of studies. The reason is the fact that attitudes towards science are an important element of scientific literacy and directly affect studentâ€™s achievements, educational and career aspirations, future realization and responsible citizenship. The survey aims to obtain an overall picture of student attitudes and perceptions related to scientists and science in society, in and out school with participation of a total of 249 Bulgarian students aged 14-17 years old from different types of schools and cities. The results outline some stereotypes and bias toward of science and scientists. Observed are peculiarities such as: Missing links between science and its context; polarization of perceptions of scientists and attitudes towards science in school; very low interest in science-related education and career and insufficient use of learning in informal settings. This study draws opportunities for future educational research in youthâ€™s attitudes and the factors that influence them.
Keywords: attitudes of students towards science and scientists; public understanding of science